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Will Cloning Yourself Become A Reality With in 100 Years?

by Raul Buman

One of the more controversial issues facing modern society is cloning. There are benefits, but also serious ethical questions to consider. The state of medical science makes it seem likely that the opportunity to clone people will be available before the end of the century. Animal cloning has been practiced for decades and unexpected problems have presented challenges. Translating the technical and ethical details to humans will present even more challenges.

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As researchers discover more about health and wellness, they form new theories about care and test them. Every year, new and more effective treatments are found for a growing number of physical issues. Doctors are able to put more names on specific illnesses as they discover the mechanism for the condition. Understanding the cause is one of the keys for developing treatment options. Improved access to cloned organs is gaining popularity as a medical resource.

Since animal cloning has been available for years, and human medical science is advancing at a faster rate, it makes sense that the process could be available within 100 years. Some people see science moving this direction and feel they are getting into an area that they are not prepared to explore. Considering the unexpected mutations in the genes of cloned animals, there is significant risk of things going horribly wrong in human cloning.

However, this is still one of the most popular areas of research for scientists and medical professionals. There has been a lot of attention given to the controversy over the use of stem cells and the chance to grow replacement tissue genetically identical to a patient’s. While this creates the opportunity to replace diseased or damaged tissue, it opens the door to the possibility of an expansion of this type of treatment. The ethical questions of how to make sure the technology is only used ethically presents problems.

Many doctors believe stem cells could help cure several diseases as they have excellent potential for growth. This is where those who want to supervise medical professionals offer resistance. Suggesting that it is possible to grow replacement tissue is getting dangerously close to justifying the opportunity to clone a human so people have a source of spare parts.

The conversation regarding how this will affect humanity must be addressed and some say it should be strictly off limits. The medical community recognizes that human cloning is grossly unethical in its current state.

Doctors claim that care will improve so rapidly in coming years that soon people will live for 150 years. This means a lot of organs and tissues will wear out from use due to living longer than they are meant to. Another issue that will complicate the matter even more is that a lot of people will be interested in having a clone as an assistant.

When the technology is available and all the problems and challenges are solved, there will be some people who are willing to pay to be cloned no matter how much it costs. However, there is a lot of research left to do. The idea of creating life when the possibility of mutation exists, will prevent legitimate medical professionals from trying. Even the slightest chance of a mutation is too great for cloning to be considered an option. Cloning will be possible, but too risky, even in the next 100 years.

Fighting Addiction with Science

by Raul Buman

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) – a leading government-funded research center- addiction is a complex illness made up of different components. While an addict may start out by voluntarily taking their drug of choice, when they do so over and over again, they may soon be unable to resist the urge to take the drug.

Part of the reason why an addict becomes compelled to take their drug of choice is because the reward pathways in their brains become physically altered after repeated drug exposure. Alterations in the brain-reward pathway make it much harder for the addict to gain pleasure from experiences other than taking the drug. Therefore, addicts may keep taking their drug of choice in order to try to gain pleasure from something.

Other brain pathways that are hurt by repeated drug exposure are pathways that are involved in making good decisions. With repeated drug use, it may become harder for an addict to resist impulses of all kinds. They may engage in risky behavior in order to obtain their drug of choice, and they may find it very difficult to resist the urge to take the drug. They may even be unable to stop themselves form taking their drug of choice, even though doing so may compromise their relationships or their career.

Because addiction is a complex disease, the treatment is equally complex. Research from NIDA provides clear insight into which treatments work to get addicts to stop using and to prevent them from relapsing. First, just going to a rehab facility and detoxifying by itself is not enough. Getting clean is only the very first step in beating addiction. A good rehab facility focuses not only helping people through the hard physical withdrawal from a drug, but also on all the psychological factors that played into their addiction in the first place.

Good rehab will include both medication and psychological treatment. A combination of both treatment types help addicts stay on the path to recovery. Medication can help ease the physical symptoms of withdrawal, but may also be used to help an addict beat their cravings and regain control over their lives. Medication by itself, however, rarely works unless the addict is able to understand the situations and/or ways of thinking that led them down the path to addiction in the first place.

Behavioral treatment helps addicts change the way they think about their lives and their addiction. Behavioral therapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, which helps addicts examine the way they think and behave in certain situations where they are most likely to use drugs, and to give them different ways to think and confront those situations so that they are able to better deal with the cravings and situations that are most likely to lead to relapse.

According to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 23.1 million people over the age of 12 needed treatment for an addiction of some sort. Of those who needed treatment, only 10.8 percent actually received treatment at a rehab facility. Of those who did not seek treatment, a full 94.6 percent did not seek treatment because they did not feel that they needed it. The research doesn’t lie. Please, if you need help, seek it. A good rehab facility may save your life and your family.

The Science Behind Teen Addiction

by Raul Buman

When thinking about addiction, a lot of people think it is a personal problem. Sadly, this way of thinking has caused a lot of people, young and old, to think negatively and avoid the issue. However, there is a science behind all of it and a person who understands this can help his or her children avoid issues. With this in mind, here is a short guide to the science behind teen addiction.

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Parents: Without a doubt, if a parent or both parents are addicts, the child will have a higher chance of becoming addicted. To minimize this, parents should avoid alcohol and drugs, especially while around their children. Think about it, at a young age, if kids see their parents drinking or doing drugs, they are likely to think it is okay. On the other hand, if you have children and avoid these activities while they are young, you will go a long way in setting a great example.

The older the better: Most people will start drinking at some age. Furthermore, most will try marijuana or other drugs. While this is okay when someone is older, it is wise to avoid this at a young age. Sadly, when a kid gets into alcohol or drugs when he or she is under 18, they have a higher chance of developing a dependency. The reason for this is simple. If your kid starts at a young age, he or she is likely to think the thought-process of using drugs and alcohol are healthy. For this reason, to prevent issues, you should watch your kids closely and do your best to prevent them from spending time around other people on drugs.

Peer pressure is real: Believe it or not, peer pressure is a real phenomenon. However, if you raise children in an intelligent manner and teach the how to say no, you can avoid most problems. In fact, if you have children, you should confront them at a young age and tell them the truth behind peer pressure. When your child has sufficient self-esteem, he or she is unlikely to cave in and do drugs or drink alcohol. Instead, when your kids have the right attitude and know when to say no, they will come home safely. At the same time, they will find it easier as adults to avoid substances as they will not come to rely on them to live their day-to-day life.

Can fix problems: If you have a child who is in trouble or does drugs, you can still help him or her. In the past, some people felt they could not fix a person with these problems. However, science has shown us that most people can fix their issues and go on to live a normal and happy life. This is true whether speaking about teenagers or people in their middle age years. For this reason, if you catch your child doing drugs or drinking, you should have an honest discussion with them and work with them to fix the problem in the long-term. Another option is looking into sober living house options for young adults. These can be great options for teens who need more supervision.

Teen addiction is a serious problem. With that being said, it is a fixable one, especially when parents want to get to the bottom of the issue. Either way, it is important for one to understand the full implications so they can make the best decision.

The Science of Psychology: An Overview

by Raul Buman

Psychology is the academic, scientific and professional study of human behavior and the mind. Formal psychological inquiry can be traced to as early as the fourth century B.C., when the Greek physician Hippocrates posited that mental disorders are of a physical origin rather than a divine one. Rooted in both philosophical and biological thought, psychology came into its own as a distinct science in the 1870s. Since that time, the field has grown immensely in both scope and influence. Today, psychology is a highly respected and diverse field.

Wilhelm Wundt and the Establishment of Psychology as a Distinct Science

In 1874, the German physician Wilhelm Wundt published Principles of Physiological Psychology. This publication foreshadowed the coming emergence of psychology as its own science distinct from biology. In 1879, Wundt established the first experimental laboratory for the study of psychological processes in Leipzig, Germany. This marked psychology’s beginnings as its own area of scientific inquiry.

Structuralism

Wundt’s work has been associated with the early psychological school of Structuralism. Structuralism sought to break complex mental processes down to their basic elemental components for the purposes of observation. The school employed a technique it called introspection to observe mental responses to the controlled introduction of certain stimuli. The Structuralist school was named and developed by Wundt’s student Edward B. Tichener who would diverge considerably from his teacher’s ideas.

Functionalism

Functionalism represents the first reaction against the tenets of Structuralism. Functionalist thought was heavily influenced by the work of William James and Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to accurately systematize mental processes rather than merely identify and catalog them as the Structuralists had. Functionalist thought focused on the purposes of the various mental processes and emphasized individual differences rather than universalism. The two schools were rarely able to reach agreement on their basic approaches, and professional rivalry characterized their coexistence for decades.

Psychoanalysis

Around the turn of the 20th century, the ideas of the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud began to take hold supplanting both Structuralism and Functionalism at the forefront of psychological theory. Freud’s school of Psychoanalysis relied heavily on the construct of the unconscious mind. Freud held that the unconscious mind is responsible for all human behavior. He subdivided the unconscious mind into the id, the ego and the superego assigning specific mental functions to each of these sub-constructs. Freud’s thought was adopted and expanded upon by many important psychological thinkers most notably the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung.

Behaviorism

In the early 20th century, John B. Watson established the Behaviorist school partially as a reaction to the dominance of Psychoanalysis in contemporary psychology. Behaviorism focused on measurable human behavior and eschewed unobservable internal processes. The Behaviorists held that human response to stimuli can be trained to be predictable through techniques of conditioning. Influenced by Ivan Pavlov’s celebrated experiments on the salivary responses of dogs, this school was famously championed by B.F. Skinner and others.

Humanistic Psychology

In the mid-20th century, psychologists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers led the development of a new school of psychological thought. The Humanistic Psychology movement held that both Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism unnecessarily mechanize human mental processes and ignore the impact of free will. Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs formulates the basic Humanist view that people move toward a state of self-actualization.

Modern Psychology

While modern psychology incorporates elements of all of the historical schools, the tendency is toward eclecticism. It is understood that the nature of the mind yields a subject that is resistant to controlled study. Further, as long as the mind continues to evolve, psychology can only hope to, at best, remain an incomplete science. While detractors might claim this as a reason to dismiss its scientific validity, a more optimistic interpretation reveals a science with unlimited potential to grow. The school of thought can then be broken down and shared with the world better help and influence generations with different resources. For example, anger management psychologists can help individuals to break down the different layers of the mind to help them move forward in a positive direction.